Poranopsis paniculata

Nomenclature

Accepted name/Authority/Place of publication: 

Poranopsis paniculata (Roxb.) Roberty, Candollea 14: 26. 1952. 

Synonyms: 

Porana paniculata Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 3: 31. tab. 235. [May 1815] 1819. — Dinetus paniculatus (Roxb.) Sweet, Hort. brit. 289. 1827.  TYPE: India, Calcutta Botanic Garden,  Roxburgh s.n. sub Wallich Catalogue 1325E (lectotype: K-W; probable isolectotypes: BR, OXF).

Porana tomentosa Lesch. ex Choisy, Mém. Soc. Phys. Genève 6: 489. 1834.  nomen pro syn., invalid under Article 34.

Description

Habit: 
Liana to 15 m long, vegetative parts grayish to tawny. Mature stems cylindrical, spirally striate, 2.5(–5) cm diam., tan to grayish-brown; branches often pendulous, younger stems terete, 3–6 mm diam., smooth or striate, shoot tips puberulent, pith solid. Indumentum arms appressed or erect.
Leaves: 
Leaf petiole 2.6–10.8 cm long, 2–3 mm diam.; blade cordate or broadly ovate-orbicular, 7.5–16.5 by 5.3–15 cm, base cordate, apex acute to acuminate, sometimes apiculate, adaxially subglabrous or scabridulous with appressed hairs, abaxially grayish to silvery villous, denser along veins, venation with 2–3(–4) basal pairs and 1(–2) distal pairs of secondary veins.
Inflorescences: 
Inflorescence horizontal or ascending, 33–62 cm long, lower bracts foliose, petiolate, petiole 7–30 mm long, blade cordate, 3.1–7.7 by 1.8–5.5 cm, sometimes apiculate; upper bracts becoming (sub)sessile, cordate-ovate (to linear-subulate), (5–10–)15–28 by (1–2)–6–14 mm; pedicels filiform, 2–4 mm long, elongating slightly in fruit.
Flowers: 
Flowers sweetly fragrant; buds ellipsoid to obovoid, apically obtuse, villous. Sepals equal, lanceolate to linear, flat or slightly naviculate, 1–2 mm long, base truncate, margins entire, apex tapering acuminate, chartaceous, tomentose-villous outside, glabrous inside. Corolla narrowly funnelform, (4–)5–6(–7) by (3–4–)5–7 mm, membranous, white to cream colored, tube slender, throat flaring abruptly, limb shallowly 5-lobed, lobes obovate, retuse, ± mucronulate, outside of tube and plicae glabrous, throat and interplical areas villous, inside completely glabrous. Stamens subequal, < 2 mm long, included; filaments glabrous; anthers extrorse, whitish; pollen 3-colpate, prolate to obtuse-rectangular, 13–14 by 9–10 micrometer, surface psilate. Pistil < 0.5 mm, included in corolla tube; disc absent, or small, annular, and brown; ovary subglobose to broadly ovoid, brownish, glabrous; style very short; stigma subsessile, biglobose, lobes spherical, erect.
Pollen: 
Pollen 3-colpate, prolate to obtuse-rectangular, 13–14 by 9–10 micrometer, surface psilate.
Fruits: 
Fruiting calyx loosely clasping to diverging from utricle, outer 3 sepals elliptic-oblong to narrowly ovate, 16–22(–24) by 7–9 mm, base obtuse to truncate, margins entire, free, apex rounded, obtuse (or retuse), often mucronulate; inner 2 sepals linear to falcate, (4–5–)6–7(–9) by (<1–)2–3 mm; all sepals chartaceous, tan, reddish or pale brown, bifacially puberulent, opaque. Utricle globose to broadly ellipsoid, apiculate, 5–6(–7) by 4–5 mm, chartaceous, tan to brownish, darker striate, pubescent with erect, 2-armed hairs.
Seeds: 
Seed globose to broadly ellipsoid, 4–6 by 3–5 mm, dark brown, faintly striate, glabrous; hilum basal, ca. 1 mm diam.
Author: 
G. Staples
References: 

Staples, G.W. 2006. Blumea 51: 403–491. 

Cytology

Chromosome number: 
26
Author: 
Manitz, H.
References: 

Manitz, H. 1983. Wiss. Z. Friederich-Schiller-Univ. Jena, Math.-Naturwiss. Reihe 32: 915–944. 

Biogeography, Ecology and Natural History

Distribution Map: 
Distribution: 

South of the Himalayas in Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, Bangladesh, and Myanmar (Map).  

Ecology: 

Forests, scrub
thickets, subtropical jungles, open plains, and around human habitations. Soil
types have been recorded as rocky, stony, conglomerate and limestone (in a
subtropical jungle habitat); from sea level to 2000 m. 

Phenology: 

Months

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Flowering specimens

9

5

2

1

2

20

40

15

Fruiting specimens

2

3

8

5

1

Author: 
G. Staples
References: 

Staples, G.W. 2006. Blumea 51: 403–491. 

Other information

Common names and uses: 
Faindal, jhol (India, Himachal Pradesh); bel-kámú, bridal wreath, lethai, safed-bel (Uttar Pradesh); jharo, silver creeper (Madhya Pradesh); poranana (Maharashtra); buria-lar, khar (Orissa); silvar creeper (West Bengal); rutaza (Meghalaya, Garo dialect); mahadeo lahara (E Nepal); December pan (Myanmar, Rangoon); thazin pan (Myanmar, Pyinmana); yuan zhui fei e teng (China); bridal creeper (Malaysia, English), schildersverdriet (Dutch), kembang garen (Malay); bridal bouquet (Philippines); bridal veil, Christmas vine, white corallita (U.S.A., Florida); Ipomoea (Mexico, Yucatan); Christmas vine, white coralita (Jamaica); vela de nova (Dominican Republic); coralite, coralline (U.S. Virgin Islands); mugue (St. Barts); Chinese lace (Dutch Antilles); muget, muguet (Guadeloupe); corallila (Grenada); corallete creeper (Sierra Leone); liane de mai (Seychelles Islands).
General comments: 

Poranopsis paniculata is widely cultivated as an ornamental throughout the tropical regions of the world. The first report of its cultivation dates from 1799, in the botanical garden of the British East India Company at Calcutta. It is now found throughout the tropical regions of the world. However the large size and expansive habit of the plant limit its popularity with horticulturalists. 

Authorship for webpage

Editor: 
George Staples, Esmond Er
Contributors: 
Classification: 
Fri, 2011-09-23 03:49 -- Esmond
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